An analysis of the coronavirus situation shows that there are more men than women among patients with fatal outcomes. For the first time, the researchers from China said that, the scientists noted high mortality rates in men and lower in women. Later that trend continued in other countries. Now, calculating the COVID-19 data, the researchers came to the conclusion that the situation has leveled off slightly, and both men and women are infected with the virus in approximately the same way.
But in different age categories, the number of sick men is still higher. The immunologists wonder: why do infected women survive more often than men? They decided to focus on mast cells, that are also known as mastocytes.
They play an important role in the human immune system, since they are the first to respond to the invasion of the pathogens, forming operational immune responses, helping to cleanse the body of the virus. The study revealed that mast cells in the female body are able to activate the immune response faster than in the male body. But it does not mean that the women's immune system is stronger - it is at high risk of allergic and inflammatory diseases.
In general, female immunity has a stronger response than in men, because it allows to deal with infections quickly. But the hormones as estrogen and testosterone, as well as the result of good genetic factors, are most often responsible for such a reaction of the immune system.
Although the genes on the same X chromosome are mostly inactive, some immune genes can avoid that inactivation. As a result, it leads to a doubling of the number of immunity-related genes. This means a doubling of the number of certain immune proteins compared to biology in men who have only one X chromosome.
The hormones can also affect the immune response. One study showed that the estrogen and the testosterone are able to provide them with protection against SARS-CoV. Current analysis of the spread of the pandemic makes it clear that among women infected with coronavirus, survival is higher than in men.
But after 70 years, the risk becomes the same, that indicates the level of hormones in both sexes - over the years it becomes the same.