New York University geneticists have learned to increase plant biomass. This was due to the discovery of the molecular connection of the genetic characteristics of plants with their growth. The results of this discovery will help increase the efficiency of nitrogen utilization in plants to reduce dependence on traditionally used fertilizers. Agronomists know that fertilizers applied to the soil are one of the components of obtaining high yields.
Nitrogen fertilizers are traditionally used, despite the fact that their use is considered not only expensive, but also unsafe for the environment. The basic mechanisms by which plants can regulate their growth with the help of nitrogen fertilizers are still unknown to science.
And this moment was called key by genetics, since its study will help to accelerate plant growth and limit the use of fertilizers. Having paid attention to this fact, geneticists managed to find the missing part in the molecular connection between plant growth and the perception of nitrogen fertilizers. Thus, the researchers were able to significantly increase the dose of plant biomass without the use of nitrogen fertilizers.
To begin with, they found out the process of the effect of increasing the dose of fertilizers on the plant genome depending on the season. Then the researchers created a mathematical model that calculated the rate of change of RNA for the genes of the experimental plantings.
This made it possible to find out that the dynamics of responses to a dose of nitrogen is governed by simple principles of the kinetics of enzymes — reaction rates catalyzed by enzymes that have been known since 1913. With their help, a model was created for the rate of change in gene expression in 30 percent of plants sensitive to nitrogen fertilizers.
Genetics explained in which case you can refuse to use nitrogen fertilizers. In that, when an increase in the number of key transcription factors increases the rate of expression of genes that depend on the dose of nitrogen, and, as a consequence, the growth rate of plants.