After the end of the ice age on our planet, ancient people organized migration routes. They began to conquer Europe at a slow pace. A new study proves that some of these mass migrations could affect the landscape, changing it. Specialists from the UK discovered the first farming communities, the soil cultivated by ancient farmers had little impact on the environment.
But the second wave of migrants had an opposite effect. And this wave began in the Bronze Age. The routes of the people of that time followed by the Russian steppes and the movements of people are associated with a reduction in deciduous trees and an increase in the area of pastures.
Scientists believe that migration flows have shown a wave sequence of placing groups of people who have their specific skills and experience. Each such group is new knowledge, new experience, new genes and new ways of survival. One of the oldest routes followed to the Anatolian Peninsula, where modern Turkey is now located.
The hunters were the first here, and then the population was located, having the skills of their neighbours. After about 11 thousand years, a new migration wave arose from this place, directed to the northwest. The Anatolian owners left their DNA where - it can still be found in modern European populations.
Researchers have managed to produce a map showing the distribution of the three main genetic populations across Europe for several centuries in a row. One species belonged to a group of hunters who established themselves in the landscape of the ice age. The second group is Anatolian farmers moving on.
The third is today referred to as the “pit culture” - the archaeological culture of the late Copper Age and this name is associated with the type of grave of people of this species. The early Bronze Age is famous for the fact that an ancient man moved north of the Black Sea. He already mastered advanced technologies, used horses, wheels and was able to process milk.
A comparison of these populations showed that the farther the migration flows spread, the smarter and more entrepreneurial people became. They used the forest for many needs, including for the construction of dwellings. They learned to use stone for construction work, they began to build dams and dams to provide themselves with fish.