If you cut off the beams of two lasers in an experiment with a collision of photons, then you can hardly achieve the creation of new massive particles. Instead, you can watch the two beams combine to form one bright beam. Two colliding waves form one large, it is the meaning of the Maxwell's equation for classical electromagnetism. Simone Pagan Griso, a researcher at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, says that the scientists are observing these two phenomena.
They were discovered recently when the Maxwell's equation was combined with special relativity and quantum mechanics in the theory of quantum electrodynamics. In the used accelerator complex, the speed of protons increased to a speed close to the speed of light.
Their traditionally round shapes shrank in the direction of travel. Two incoming protons see each other in the form of compressed pancakes, they are accompanied by an equally compressed electromagnetic field. In that case, the energy of the accelerator increases the strength of the electromagnetic fields of protons by almost 7.5 thousand times.
When two protons touch, their electromagnetic fields intersect. They ignore the traditional amplification that is used at low energies. Instead, they follow the rules of quantum electrodynamics.
The classical equation for the total mass of a physical object, read from right to left, allows to see that a small amount of mass produces a huge amount of energy due to the constant that is the square of the speed of light.
But on the other hand, the same formula allows to see that it is needed to start with a huge amount of energy in order to produce the minimum mass. The Large Hadron Collider is one of the artificially created places on the planet capable of colliding energetic photons.
It makes it possible to observe how two photons combine, turning into a W-boson. Bosons are weak, just like photons. And the reason photons are able to merge is because the forces at the highest energies can merge, creating a weak electrical force.