In 2012, the physicists confirmed the existence of the Higgs boson for the first time. It was discovered among many other particles created at the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva. The discovery was called fundamental. It was extremely difficult to detect and identify and earlier scientists only assumed that the Higgs boson could exist and have the ability to endow other elementary particles with mass.
The physicists from California Institute of Technology were instrumental in the discovery of the boson, and a researcher Peter Higgs won the Nobel Prize in 2013. This year, with an experiment using a compact muon solenoid, the physicists were able to find an evidence that the Higgs boson decays into a pair of elementary particles called muons.
The muon is a peculiar, but heavier version of the electron. Both particles are known as fermions, described by the Einstein's standard model. It classifies all particles, noting that fermions are the building blocks of matter, and bosons are the carriers of force. The muon is called the second generation particle, and the electrons are referred to as the first generation particles, since they are the lightest.
Particles of the second and the third generation have the ability to decay and become particles of the first generation. The new discovery proves how the Higgs boson can interact with the second-generation particles. It is also a result proving that the rate at which boson pairs decay into particles is proportional to the square of the fermion mass.
Further study of the process and new data will confirm that the boson actually gives the fundamental particles their mass. And Chen, a professor of physics at the California Institute of Technology, believes that the importance of the discovery lies in the possibility of studying rare processes associated with the Higgs boson, where any deviation from the Einstein's standard model could indicate new physics.
It requires more accurate analytical methods to confirm the intended results.