The Universe consists of matter, and what, in turn, does that matter consist of. Reflecting the latest trends in science, they suggested that matter may not consist of particles or waves, as is commonly believed, but of fragments of energy. Even the ancient Greeks introduced five building blocks: land, water, air, fire and ether. Ether is just the very matter that filled the heavens and explained the movement and rotation of the stars.
For the first time, these five elements became the basic ones from which the world can be built. 300 years ago Isaac Newton suggested that matter is a kind of particles. Another 50 years later, James Clerk Maxwell introduced the electromagnetic wave from which matter is formed.
He combined waves and particles, and thus came the theory of the building blocks of all types of matter. Einstein proposed general relativity, which helps to explain many physical phenomena, by claiming the curvature of space and time. Using the tools is already available, the physicists demonstrated a completely new theory that can accurately describe the Universe.
Particles and waves are complete opposites, but there is a connection between them. The basis of the theory lies in the fundamental idea that energy always penetrates through the regions of time and space. If you think of it as lines filling these areas, they never end or intersect.
And the scientists decided to find a single building block for the flowing energy. And in the end they succeeded. It can look like a concentration of energy, the main concentration of which is in the center and decreases with distance from the center. To their surprise, the physicists found that there are few ways to describe the concentration of current energy.
And only one of them works with the mathematical definition of flow. It was called a fragment of energy. Using it as a building block, the scientists proposed several mathematical solutions. They created a model of the Sun as a huge stationary fragment of matter, and the Mercury became a smaller such fragment moving slowly through space.
By calculating the trajectories of the moving fragments, the physicists received the same answers as the predictions of general relativity. That work showed how the new building block can accurately simulate different volumes of space bodies. And the fragment turned out to be the only potential universal building block from which reality can be modeled using mathematics.