Neurons are electrical wiring in our body. Neurons are connected to each other by synapses, which are important in the transmission of information. There is a complex molecular mechanism inside each one, they are called synaptic vesicles. They work in concert to provide neural transmission. All synapses are made of proteins, and proteins are the synaptic proteome. This is what the researchers are studying.
To ensure the delivery of information, synapses must communicate with each other, representing specialized structures that act through connections between neurons. Synapses not only unite and connect neurons, but also process, store and receive all information flows.
If the synapses go astray, it will certainly have a destructive effect on memory, attention, orientation and can lead to various brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. 14 years ago, the scientists were able to identify a synaptic protein from one unique peptide. But when they applied it to the same protein, the scientists discovered several unique peptides.
Zachary Taufik, a researcher in the Department of Cellular and Molecular Synaptic Functions at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, says synapses are full of protein mechanisms.
It is important to understand their content as it provides access to vast amounts of molecular and functional information. But there are many gaps in knowledge about the synaptic proteome, and in order to fill them, the scientists decided to develop a special method for finding the missing proteins.
And they managed to do it, they discovered previously hidden synaptic proteins. The research team applied the traditional proteomic method, modifying it and thereby making it more powerful.
As a result, they identified 4439 synaptic proteins, of which 1466 were found in synaptic vesicles, and this is three times more than was previously known to science. All identified proteins are associated with 200 different brain diseases. The new knowledge will give the researchers new ways to determine the most effective treatment for them.