At the California Institute of Technology, the experiments have been carried out since the 80s. The scientists want to find the particles that make up the dark matter. That invisible substance fills our Universe. The dark matter exists hypothetically, it does not emit light, but makes up about 80% of all outer space. The scientists suggest its presence for the reason that dark matter has repeatedly exerted influence on the ordinary through its gravity.
Catherine Zurek, who is a Professor of Theoretical Physics, and the colleagues believe that new ideas are needed for experiments to detect dark matter. They are confident that dark matter will find itself in the large-scale experiments, for example, using XENON equipment installed underground in a water tank in Italy.
The dark matter is able to pass through the objects. As the Earth moves around the center of the galaxy, the steady wind of the dark matter goes unnoticed. But it’s important to find ways to search for rare interactions between the wind of dark matter and the detector that determines its presence. The quasiparticles known as magnon can help with that.
Such a particle is an emerging phenomenon at the moment when the solid behaves as if it contains weakly interacting particles. Magnons are a type of quasiparticle where the spins of electrons act like the magnets. A new study in the search for the dark matter will be coupled with an experiment using magnetically crystallized material.
He will look for the excited magnons that are generated by the dark matter. Zhengkang Zhang, Ph.D. at the California Institute of Technology, believes that if the dark matter particles are lighter than a proton, it is almost impossible to detect their signal by conventional methods.
But there are certain models with hidden sectors, when particles of dark matter can combine with the spins of electrons, causing magnons. If the scientists can reduce background noise by cooling equipment and moving it underground, magnons can be detected by certain devices. Such an experiment is only in theory so far, but it can be implemented in the nearest future.