The black holes mystery: gravitational waves will help to understand the creation and evolution of galaxies

The black holes mystery: gravitational waves

Exceptionally curved spacetime will help to find black holes that are unknown to the science. The astrophysicists from the Vanderbilt University are conducting an experiment to determine the center of the Solar System. For the first time, understanding of the Universe and the Earth located in it arose in the science back in 1609, when the first conventional telescope was appeared.

Four hundred years later, the scientists have advanced far in space exploration. Today, their minds are occupied with the knowledge of the black holes. They find them due to the gravitational waves emitted by the black holes.

Today, the search for previously undetected black holes, that are billions of times more massive than the Sun, involves finding the exact location in reference to the center of the Solar System's gravity. Stephen Taylor, who is an associate professor of physics and astronomy at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, believes that gravitational waves can be measured in that way: they signal the existence of these black holes. A black hole is a region of pure gravity formed from extremely curved spacetime.

The discovery of these giant supermassive black holes will help the scientists to find out how various galaxies are, including the solar system, formed and developed over billions of years. Each black hole is a kind of laboratory for testing fundamental assumptions about physics. The researchers believe that today they have the technical ability to determine the center of the solar system with an accuracy of one hundred meters. Gravitational waves are ripples in space-time according to Einstein's general theory of relativity.

The rotation of paired black holes creates gravitational radiation, deforming the space, stretching and compressing it. Such waves were first detected by the LIGO laser interferometric gravitational-wave observatory in 2015. From that moment, new perspectives opened up for the scientists to search for the most extreme objects in the universe. LIGO's ability is to observe relatively short gravitational waves through a detector that is 4 kilometers long.

Now, with the help of the equipment, the specialists intend to find changes in the rate of arrival of regular flashes of the radio waves from pulsars. The pulsars are fast-moving neutron stars. During rotation, they emit radio waves. The Earth equipment catches them like interstellar beacons. 15-year observations have shown how frequent regular pulsations are and that any changes in them can be associated with the influence of gravitational waves affecting the galaxy.

It is on these observations that the center of gravity of the Solar System is calculated. It can be associated with the mass of the Jupiter and minimal knowledge of its orbit. The astronomers believe that more accurate data on the center of the Solar System can be obtained using Doppler tracking. That will make it possible to obtain an estimate of the location and trajectories of bodies revolving around the Sun.