An amazing structure has been discovered in the Universe, which is a huge cluster of the galaxies. They are not just scattered over an expanding void, but are also ordered in a particular system. The astronomers, studying its amazing contents, came to the conclusion that they were observing a giant “wall” of the galaxies that are gravitationally connected to each other. The site where such clusters is located in the southern part of the sky and covers approximately 1.37 billion light-years.
The discoverers decided to give it a name - the South Pole Wall. It has incredible sizes. That is one of the largest space structures that the scientists have ever observed. They believe that the structure is a kind of galaxy thread that forms the boundary between the empty spaces of the cosmic voids that together form a space network.
Outwardly, it may seem like a wall. In outer space there are similar formations. For example, the Great Wall of Hercules-Corona is considered as the largest wall-cluster. It spans 9.7 billion light years. But the new South Pole Wall discovered by the astronomers is special. Firstly, because it is very close to the Milky Way Galaxy that is only 500 million light-years from the Earth. And therefore, it is considered as the most gigantic structure that the scientists have ever seen at such a short distance.
But why was it possible to observe that Wall only now? The astronomers give their answer: it is located beyond the Galactic Eclipse Zone - that is especially the formation of the Milky Way. And only modern technology has allowed the science to look into that education.
That Zone is very bright and dense from dust, gas and stars, and it obscures everything that is directly behind it. The specialists from the University of Paris-Saclay were the first to see the unique Wall. They used a database called Cosmicflows-3, which contains calculations of distances to 18 thousand galaxies.
The calculations are made using redshift and stretched light waves. Using these parameters, the team could calculate the movements of the galaxies relative to each other - and these movements revealed the gravitational influence of a much larger mass. Using algorithms, the team was able to use these movements to display in three dimensions the distribution of material in the wall of the South Pole, even outside the avoidance zone.