Does dark energy exist? For science, it is one of the most important mysteries. Hypothetically, dark energy is filled with outer space, it separates the galaxies among themselves. But there is no evidence of the dark matter. The astronomers know very little about what they do not see, but at the same time they have the simplest explanations for the expansion of the Universe.
They are contained in a "cosmological constant", and that is the result of the energy of empty space itself. But not all physicists are satisfied with the explanation. Many want a more fundamental definition. Could dark energy be a new type of the energy field?
Or maybe it is some kind of special exotic liquid? The new project aimed at finding dark matter is an expanded spectroscopic study of baryon vibrations. The result of that study is the largest 3D cosmological map ever produced. Today, the only way to understand the presence of dark energy is through the space observations. The farther away the galaxies are, the younger they appear. This is due to the light that these galaxies emit. Light takes billions or millions of years to reach human-made telescopes.
Observing it, the astronomers seem to use a time machine, measuring the cosmic distance, calculating the possible values of the expansion rate of the Universe. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has made it possible to study more than two million galaxies and quasars over the past 20 years. In total, the new cosmological map covers about 11 billion years of space history, previously unexplored and that may contain the secrets about dark energy.
The astronomers say about 69% of the energy in the entire universe is dark. Analyzing the map data with the information that is constantly transmitted by the space probes, the scientists discovered the presence of a cosmic microwave background. It could be the light left over from the Big Bang. The study of the circumstance will help to understand better some of the contradictions associated with the rate of expansion of the Universe.
The combination of that knowledge has demonstrated the gaps in the evolutionary development of the cosmos. For example, new data on the change in the expansion rate of the Universe is about 10% lower than the value obtained using the direct methods of measuring the distances to the nearby galaxies. There are no explanations for the discrepancy yet, and it may be a sign that new physics is needed to explore the dark energy of outer space.
But even if it happens, the researchers believe that the cosmologists around the world will remain puzzled by the simplicity of the dark matter, the calculation of its magnitudes and places of presence. In the meantime, the astronomers are only trying to get as close to it as possible in order to identify, detect and prove its existence.