Black holes can be fluffy lumps: string theory suggests a new theory for their existence

Scientists have proposed a new theory of string-based black holes

Black holes are considered the most mysterious objects in the Universe, which completely destroy all knowledge of physics. But the scientists suggested a very bold theory, what if these gravitational monsters are not black holes at all, but vibrating balls of strings? The new study does not deny that it is actually possible. By all the rules of the Einstein's theory, there should be no black holes. According to the theory, a clot of matter passes through a powerful gravitational compression, turning, having reached a critical threshold, into an infinitely tiny point.

It is a singularity surrounded by an area called the event horizon. It is the place where the force of internal attraction is higher than the speed of light. In fact, such a point, as shown by the physical calculations, cannot exist. And so the question of the existence of a black hole is just a theory.


But in the middle of the 20th century, the astronomers began to observe distant objects that look like black holes and that behave like black holes. Despite the unreality of events, they even move freely in the universe. In 1976, physicist Stephen Hawking stated that due to the oddities of quantum mechanics, black holes have the ability to slowly evaporate. Thus, a theory of paradox arose: everything that falls into a black hole, including any information flow, is locked inside.

And when the black hole evaporates, what happens to what was trapped inside it? Physicists spent decades trying to explain it and other facts associated with supposed black holes, believing that there is something that replaces the singularity with mathematics and it works.

One of the options for the development of events is associated with string theory. It is a model of the universe, where all particles and forces are represented as subatomic vibrating strings. In theory, they represent the fundamental constituents of matter in the universe. But they are so small that in order for that theory to really work, additional calculations of tiny particles, curled up to subatomic scales, are needed. But it is string theory that can explain the inexplicable and can replace black holes with something less frightening.


The best metaphor for this is fluffy clumps, as if looking at another compact and very strange object in the Universe, a neutron star. Such stars are often compared with black holes and there are explanations for that: inside a neutron star there is matter compressed to a state of maximum density.

In a neutron star, such a partnership is impossible as the interaction of the main particles, they are neutrons, protons and electrons. It collapses and leaves behind densely compressed neutrons. If we consider the basis of string theory, then the particles really just shrink and turn into a big ball of strings, into a fluffy ball.

Now these fluffy lumps are not only not concretized, they do not even lend themselves to a complete theoretical explanation, since no one has ever been able to offer a complete mathematical solution for it. Nevertheless, they are possible and scientists intend to prove the assumptions in the voiced theory with the help of gravitational waves.